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June 11, 1981     The Malakoff News
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June 11, 1981
 

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10A=The M01ak0ff News, ThursdaY,_June !1,1.981 t Enough about motherly level It's your turn to stand up and claim credit for all the hours you've devoted to the care and feeding of the little ones. Not just the time and energy you've spent providing food and shelter, but all those hours invested in midnight bottle feedings, diaper changings, hack-to- school nights, endless piano and dance recitals, refereeing at soccer games and providing unlimited chauffeur ser- vice. It's enough to make you feel like a proud papa, especially when you stop and realize that fatherly love is rather rare in the animal kingdom, says Dr. Devra G. Kletman, a zoologist at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park in Washington, D.C. More often than not, she says, the father shows almost no interest in his offspring, other than perhaps defending a territory against intruders. Even among paternal types, there is wide variation in how much fathers invest in their young, she notes, with male animals investing less than birds and fishes, though more than reptiles and some amphibians. Still, there are dedicated daddies throughout the animal kingdom--from the beaver to the bush dog, from the Free Estimates - We Fix Flats (',all .'189- 1534 Hwy. 3 ! & 90 "l h~.,'k ..r lWirrs l..[,,rv y,,. I,.y'" Malakoff WE'VE LOWERED GAS PRICES New Tires Batteries Radiator Service We aJ~,~ service * lh'akes *Eleclrical * Air (:ondilioning *t)il & (;ream, *Tune-IJps The Polyester I IIIIII I I I SIZE PRICE SIZE &78-13 24.00 G78-14 B78-13 29.00 G78-15 C78-14 34.00 H78-15 E78-14 35.00 L78-15 F78-14 37.00 Whitewall I I I II I IIIIIIIIII PRICE 39.00 40.00 41.00 42.00 FET?1.55-2.72 A78-13 FET: $1.55 Exchange Free Mounting't phalarope to the penguin. Here's a Father's Day salute to them. Top honors for paternal provisioning must surely go to the Emperor Penguin, the largest of the penguins, which makes its home on the irthospitalble shelf ice of Antarcica. While we in the Northern Hemisphere are enjoying summer, it is winter in An- tarctica and perpetually dark. Even as you read this, each papa penguin is standing alone with a single egg in the dark, bitter cold, abandoned by his mate after a two-month whirlwind courtship. During their late fall fling, the male and female, apparently occupied with better things to do, entirely forgo eating and engage instead in an elaborate series of displays which culminate in mating. The female lays one egg, then promptly vanishes off to sea to feast, leaving her hapless, hungry helpmate holding the egg. The male penguin does not build a nest but holds the egg on his feet, covering it with a fold of his bellyskin throughout the entire incubation period. Since he does not dare abandon his potential offspring in order to eat, by the time the chick hatches some 60 days later, the male has lost 35 to 45 percent of his weight during his four- month fast. If the vacationing mamma has not returned by the time baby hatches, daddy also caters the first meal for the chick. The story has a happy ending, though, since morn eventually returns and both parents share the brooding and feeding responsibilities for the next five months. While much is known about this extraordinary example of fatherhood, no one has carried out studies on marital bliss among the peripatetic penguin. The usual parental roles are even more reversed in the red phalarope, a slim-necked shorebird that breeds on the Arctic tundra and winters at sea, south of the equator. The small, sub- dued-color males are ardently pursued by the larger, more gaily dressed females until the male succumbs to her charms and builds a nest, usually on a low bank covered with short grass. The female duly deposits as many as four eggs, then takes off for the open tundra, perhaps to flirt with other males, leaving the would-be father to incubate the eggs and raise the chicks on his own. Such unseemly maternal behavior led one naturalist to observe that the female red phalarope is a "poor mother at best." Moving on from feathered fathers to the watery world of fishes, there are a number of species in which the male guards the eggs laid by the female, but only a few fish can compete with the curious case of the seahorse, a small, warm-water creature in which the male literally gives birth. The female seahorse dumps her eggs in a specialized brood pouch located beneath the male's tail and swims away--forever. At birth, the male con- torts his body and expels the young through the single opening in the pouch. It's a labor of love that keeps the seahorse sire quite busy-the dwarf seahorse, for example, breeds nine months of the year and is capable of giving birth every 10 days to a whole new batch of fish fry. Sad to say, such fatherly devotion is rare among mammals, zoologist Kleiman points out, but to be perfectly fair, there are sound biological reasons which partly explain this fatherly neglect. After all, among mammals, only the female can "incubate" the egg since it is fertilized internally, and only the mother has the ability--and equip- ment--to nurse the young. This rules out two roles for male mammals that male birds and fishes can perform as well as their female mates. But if you disregard these sex dif- ferences, Kleiman says, male mam- mals do have the same potential to care for the young as females. They can provide food, shelter, defense, cleaning, carrying and grooming. They can also socialize, play and babysit with the youngsters. Yet, in an extensive survey carried out by Kleiman and a colleague, Dr. James R. Malcolm, on male paternal investment in mammals, only a few prize-winning poppas turned up. One candidate for Father of the Year is the busy beaver. Not only does the male beaver build and maintain the lodge and stock the larger with food for the winter, but when the babies are born, he provides food for them, cleans and carries them, babysits and huddles with the tykes, all the while main- taining a constant vigil against predators. Then there's the South American bush dog, a relative of the common household dog. In what is probably unique behavior among male mam- mals, the short, squat bush dog actively participates in raising the young from the moment of birth, according to biologist Ingrid Porton, a student of Kleiman's who is studying bush dog behavior at the Zoo's Conservation and Research Center in Front Royal, Va. "The father's role is incredible," an admiring Porton says. "In one instan- ce, we saw a male help pull the pup tax Taxpayers, when faced with an IRS audit, are presumed guilty and must prove their own innocence, according to Congressman Jim Collins of Texas. Even accused criminals in the legal system enjoy the right of being innocent until proven guilty. Collins has introduced the Tax- payers' Bill of Rights which would shift the burden of proof from the taxpayer to the IRS. "The average American taxpayer does not fully comprehend the 14 volumes and over 7,000 pages of com- plex tax laws and regulations. Forcing them to prove their own innocence is placing the average taxpayer at a great disadvantage to the IRS, who agents are well trained and work with the tax laws every day," Collins said. The Texas Congressman cited a report by the Citizen's Choice National Commission on Taxes and the IRS, in which a tax attorney who appeared as a witness testified: "Essentially our first contact with the... Service Is: This per- son owes the taxes and should pay whatever they have at the time, or this person has attempted to evade taxes or unlawfully failed to file a tax return. An immediately the burden is shifted to the taxpayer to prove otherwise. And that's a principle that is followed and prac- ticed." Collins noted that the presumption of innocence has been part of western law since ancient Greece and was a central feature in Roman law. "The American taxpayers who have more government than they want, more regulations than they need, and more taxes than they can afford to pay, from the female each of the births male pulls out and consttmet the afterbirth. "As soon as the pups father aids the mother pups dry and from then nearly equal role in young. The mother nurses for about 10 weeks the father continues to sleeps with the pups, regulate their ts them. It's a very Other model ms the golden lion marmoset, the predominant role in ter the baby reaches age, and the African not only provides the care but is helped living in his pack. So the next time burdens of fl you're in good--but Think about the poor and count deserve fairness and federal tax system. Why f cused criminal under the have the tax system? My bill taxpayers their basic said. The Collins T --H.R. sors and is in the WaYS Committee of the U.~" Representatives. Cuffs and need special Cuffs and collar:; "preferential" treatment dry room, advises clothing specialist. Pretreat spots and soil -- on cuffs and collars. Rub the area a paste of granular water. Also, you can bu products, but be sure cording to directions, says. Ms: Brown is on staff of the Texas sion Service, The Texas sity System. The most recovering silver from waste is operated by ministration. In 1980, to recover silver tha nearl, $14 million. 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